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Red Book Audio CD standard
technical specification


Red Book is the standard for audio CDs (Compact Disc Digital Audio system, or CDDA.

The Red Book specifies the physical parameters and properties of the CD, the optical "stylus" parameters, deviations and error rate, modulation system (Eight-to-Fourteen Modulation) and error correction (Cross-Interleaved Reed-Solomon Coding), and subcode channels and graphics.

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It also specifies the form of digital audio encoding (2-channel signed 16-bit PCM sampled at 44100 Hz).

The frequency response of audio CD, from 20 Hz to 20 kHz

Bit rate = 44100 samples/s x 16 bit/sample x 2 channels = 1411.2 kbit/s (more than 10 MB per minute)

Sample values range from -32768 to +32767.

On the disc, the data are stored in sectors of 2352 bytes each, read at 75 sectors/s. Onto this is added the overhead of EFM, CIRC, L2 ECC, and so on, but these are not typically exposed to the application reading the disc.

By comparison, the bit rate of a "1x" data CD is defined as 2048 bytes/sector x 75 sectors/s = exactly 150 KiB/s = about 8.8 MiB per minute



See Also

Red Book Audio CD Standard
Yellow Book CD Standard
White CD Standard
Blue Book Enhanced CD, CD+G and CD-Plus
Orange Book CD Standard CD-r CD-RW
CD DVD Bluray Manufacturer CD DVD Bluray pressing